Glossary

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  • Access Control

    The process of granting or denying specific requests to: 1) obtain and use information and related to information processing services; and 2) enter specific physical facilities (e.g., Federal buildings, military establishments, and border crossing entrances).

  • Access Control Management

    The processes and technologies for controlling and monitoring access privileges to resources, consistent with governing policies. Access management includes authentication, authorization, trust, and security auditing.

  • Application Execution Environment

    Application Execution Environment (AEE) supports data storage and processor capabilities and executes mobile phone services in a relatively secure manner. This fulfills mobile phone functionalities and provides basic phone functionalities and provides the user interface such as voice calling, packet communication, phonebook, browser, mailer, etc.

  • Application Programming Interface

    A source code interface that a computer system or program library provides in order to support requests for services to be made of it by other computer programs, and/or to allow data to be exchanged

  • Authentication

    The provision of assurance of the claimed entity or of data origin.

  • Authentication Method

    The method used for the authentication of an entity or data origin.

  • Authenticator

    A security factor used in an authentication method. Typical examples are tokens, mobile codes and passcodes.

  • Automatic Fare Collection Systems

    A fare collection system that provides a method of processing electronic fare media through computational devices to account for a ride or access onto a public transportation system. AFC systems were intended to require little or no operator interaction.

  • Biometric

    A measurable, physical characteristic or personal behavioral trait used to recognize the identity, or verify the claimed identity, of an individual. Facial images, fingerprints, and iris scan samples are all examples of biometrics.

  • Bluetooth

    Short-range (10-100m) wireless communication protocol

  • Byte Sequence

    Concatenation of hexadecimal values

  • Card Emulation Mode

    Card emulation mode enables NFC devices to act like smart cards, allowing users to perform transactions such as retail purchases and transit access with just a touch. This mode is capable of functioning when the device is powered-off, although it is the service provider’s decision whether to allow this. An example is where an NFC device acts as an NFC tag.

  • Card Management System

    A smart card/token and digital credential management solution that is used to issue, manage, personalize and support cryptographic smart cards and PKI certificates for identity-based applications throughout an organization.

  • Card Reader

    Any device that reads encoded information from a card, token, or other identity device and communicates to a host such as a control panel/processor or database for further action.

  • Collision

    For NFC-A, a collision is a superposition of a ‘0’ and a ‘1’ as defined in Digital Spec. For NFC-B and NFC-F, a collision is a superposition of multiple Responses, resulting in a Transmission Error.

  • Command

    An instruction from one device to another device in order to move the other device through a state machine.

  • Common Criteria

    An internationally approved security evaluation framework that provides a clear and reliable evaluation of the security capabilities of IT products, including secure ICs, smart card operating systems, and application software.

  • Connection-Oriented Transport

    A data transmission service with sequenced and guaranteed delivery of service data units.

  • Connectionless Transport

    An unacknowledged data transmission service with minimal protocol complexity.

  • Contactless Fare Media System Standard

    Contactless Fare Media System (CFMS) standard is published by APTA that describes the data format on smart cards used for fare payment, as well as the messages used between an agency central computer and a regional computer for processing fare transactions.

  • Contactless Symbol

    A symbol that is placed on contactless cards and devices to indicate contactless support and acceptance.

  • Content Provider

    An entity that is the source of the content accessed via touchpoint on an NFC Smart Poster, such as a retailer that wants to sell its products illustrated on the poster, or a concert promoter that seeks to sell tickets to an event a poster advertises.

  • Data Link Connection

    A unique combination of source and destination service access point addresses used for numbered information transfer.

  • Digital Signage

    Signage that uses digital media to display the information for the user. Most commonly these are LCD/Plasma screens (such as arrivals boards at airports), and they may have either NFC tags or card emulation devices providing NFC Smart Poster functionality.

  • EMV

    EMV® stands for Europay, MasterCard and Visa: a global standard for credit and debit payment cards based on chip card technology. EMV chip-based payment cards, also known as smart cards, contain an embedded microprocessor, a type of small computer. The microprocessor chip contains the information needed to use the card for payment, and is protected by various security features. Chip cards are a more secure alternative to traditional magnetic stripe payment cards.

  • EMV Specifications

    Technical specifications maintained by JCB International, MasterCard International, and Visa International to create standards and ensure global interoperability for use of chip technology in the payment industry.

  • EMVCo

    EMVCo manages, maintains and enhances the EMV® Integrated Circuit Card Specifications for chip-based payment cards and acceptance devices, including point of sale (POS) terminals and ATMs. EMVCo also establishes and administers testing and approval processes to evaluate compliance with the EMV Specifications. EMVCo is currently owned by American Express, JCB, MasterCard and Visa.

  • European Computer Manufacturers’ Association

    European Computer Manufacturers’ Association (ECMA)

  • European Telecommunications Standards Institute

    The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) produces globally-applicable standards for Information and Communications Technologies (ICT), including fixed, mobile, radio, converged, broadcast and internet technologies. ETIS is officially recognized by the European Union as a European Standards Organization. ETSI is a not-for-profit organization with more than 700 ETSI member organizations drawn from 62 countries across 5 continents world-wide.

  • FeliCa

    FeliCa is a contactless technology based on ISO18092 (212k/424k NFCIP1 Passive) [4] as the RF and on JIS X 6319-4 [5] as the command set. FeliCa is used in various commercial platforms, not only for cards but also for mobile, personal computers, and consumer electronics.

  • Global System for Mobile Communications

    Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) an open, digital cellular technology used for transmitting mobile voice and data services

  • GlobalPlatform

    GlobalPlatform (GP) is a cross industry, not-for-profit association which identifies, develops and publishes specifications which facilitate the secure and interoperable deployment and management of multiple embedded applications on secure chip technology.

  • Groupe Speciale Mobile Association

    The GSMA represents the interests of mobile telecommunications operators (Mobile Network Operators) worldwide. Spanning 219 countries, the GSMA unites nearly 800 of the world’s mobile operators, as well as more than 200 companies in the broader mobile ecosystem, including handset makers, software companies, equipment providers, Internet companies, and media and entertainment organizations. Mobile Network Operators own and manage the SIM Card – the UICC on which the mobile subscription is managed – which is capable of acting as a Secure Element.

  • GSM Roaming

    The ability for a customer to make and receive calls, send and receive data, or access other services when traveling outside the coverage area of their home network.

  • International Electrotechnical Commission

    International Electrotechnical Commission (IIEC) is the world’s leading organization for the preparation and publication of publication of International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies

  • International Organization for Standardization

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a specialized international agency that establishes and publishes international technical standards.

  • ISO 14443

    ISO standard governing proximity smartcards.

  • Link MIU

    The maximum number of octets in the information field of any possible LLC protocol data unit.

  • LLCP Link

    The reliable communication channel between the local and the remote LLC that provides the transport for all data link connections and logical data links.

  • Local LLC

    The LLC component running on the local device.

  • Logical Data Link

    A combination of source and destinatino service access point addresses used for unnumbered information transfer.

  • Maximum Information Unit

    Maximum Information Unit (MIU) it the maximum length of the information field in a single LLC protocol data unit.

  • MIFARE

    MIFARE™ is a trademark of NXP Semiconductors and refers to a series of chips used in contactless smart cards. MIFARE™ has been used in most of the contactless smart card fare collection projects worldwide.

  • Mobile Network Operator

    A network operator providing voice and/or data services to handset users. The mobile network operator (MNO) may own its own physical network, or it may use other network facilities in which case it is a MVNO (Mobile Virtual Network Operator).

  • Mobile Network Provisioning

    Mobile Network Provisioning

  • Mobile Virtual Network Operator

    Mobile Virtual Network Operator

  • Mobile Wallet (mWallet, m-Wallet)

    Mobile wallet refers to the functionality on a mobile device that can interact securely with digitized valuables. It includes the ability to use a mobile device to conduct commercial transactions in the physical world.A mobile wallet may reside on a mobile device or on a remote network/secure server. Alongside the ability to undertake payments, the Mobile Wallet may contain other content, such as identity, commerce and banking services, transport and other tickets, retail vouchers and loyalty programs.

  • Mobile Wallet Content Provider

    The mobile wallet content providers are the organizations or the brands that issue content for use in the mobile wallet. Outside Financial Services, such a provider might be known as a Service Provider. Within Financial Services, an issuing bank could be an example of a content provider.

  • NDEF Application

    The logical, higher-layer application on an NFC Forum Device that uses NDEF as a means to exchange information with other NFC Forum Devices or NFC Forum Tags.

  • Near Field Communication

    Near Field Communication (NFC) complements many popular consumer level wireless technologies, by utilizing the key elements in existing standards for contactless card technology (ISO/IEC 14443 A&B and JIS-X 6319-4). NFC can be compatible with existing contactless card infrastructure and enables a consumer to utilize one device across different systems.

  • NFC Controller

    The NFC Controller handles the physical transmission of data over the RF interface and antenna.

  • NFC Data Exchange Format

    The NFC Data Exchange Format (NDEF) specification ensures a uniform format for data exchange in any NFC application. It defines the data structures for the exchange of information.

  • NFC Forum Certified Device

    A device that implements at least the mandatory parts of the NFC Forum Stack and the mandatory NFC Forum Operating Modes and has received NFC Forum certification. For more information, refer to the High Level Conformance Requirement document (HLCR).

  • NFC Tag

    A contactless tag that can store NDEF information on it and can be accessed by an NFC device.

  • NFC-enabled device

    An NFC-enabled device is a device that is capable of performing near field communication.

  • OBEX Protocol

    The OBEX (Object Exchange) Protocol was developed by the Infrared Data Association (IrDA). It enables the exchange of data classified as objects between two entities.

  • Operating Field

    The radio Frequency field created by the NFC Forum Device in Poll Mode.

  • Operating Field Off

    A condition of the Operating Field when the field strength is below a well-defined threshold.

  • Operating Field On

    A condition of the Operating Field when the field strength is above a well-defined threshold for a minimum period of time.

  • Over-the-Air

    Over-the-air (OTA) provisioning is the ability to download and manage content on a device over a cellular or wireless network. This applies to the over-the-air personalisation and life cycle management in the secure element in a mobile device. This process is commonly executed through the mediation of a Trusted Service Manager (TSM), employing cellular and wireless networks to reach the mobile device. Further information: EPC, GSMA

  • Peer-to-Peer Mode

    Peer-to-peer mode enables two NFC devices to communicate with each other to exchange information and share files. Users of NFC-enabled devices can quickly share contact information and other files with a touch. Two NFC-enabled devices create a connection to share information.

  • Protocol Data Unit (PDU)

    The sequence of contiguous octets delivered as a unit to the adjacent lower layer or received as a unit from the adjacent lower layer.

  • Radio Frequency

    Radio Frequency (RF) is a rate of oscillation in the range of about 3 kHz to 300 GHz, which corresponds to the frequency of radio waves, and the alternating currents which carry radio signals.

  • Radio Frequency Identification

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

  • Reader/Writer Mode

    Reader/writer mode enables NFC devices to read information stored on inexpensive NFC tags embedded in smart posters and displays. NFC-enabled devices can access information from embedded tags in smart posters. An example is when an NFC device reads an NFC tag or device acting in card emulation mode.

  • Reader/Writers

    Devices that can read from and write to NFC tags.

  • Record Type Definition

    An NFC Forum RTD (Record Type Definition) defines NDEF payload data formats and their associated type names.

  • Remote Field

    The radio Frequency field sensed by the NFC Forum Device in Listen Mode.

  • Remote Field Present

    A condition of the Remote Filed being stable and strong enough to put the NFC Forum Device in a state that it can operate in Passive Communication Mode.

  • Remote LLC

    The LLC component running on the remote device.

  • Secure Access Module

    Secure Access Module (SAM)

  • Service

    The capabilities and features provided to the adjacent upper layer.

  • Service Access Point

    Service Access Point (SAP) is an identifying label for network endpoints used in Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) networking.

  • Service Data Unit

    Service Data Unit (SSU) is the sequence of contiguous octets received as a unit from the adjacent upper layer or delivered as a unit to the adjacent upper layer.

  • Service Discovery Protocol

    An application protocol to discover service access point users bound at the remote LLC.

  • Service Provider

    A service provider is the business entity providing the service in question either to end‐user or to another business entity. In mobile financial services service provider normally refers to the company providing the technology that enables the service. Outside Financial Services the term Service Provider refers to an entity with which the end-user has a relationship, such a transport provider.

  • Service User

    The user of a service provided by the adjacent lower layer.

  • Signature RTD

    A specification defining the record that contains a digital signature related to one or more records within an NDEF message. The signature can be used to verify the integrity and authenticity of the content.

  • smart poster

    Objects in or on which readable NFC tags have been placed.

  • Subscriber Identify Module

    An application on the UICC containing a mobile subscriber’s unique identity.

  • System on Chip

    System on Chip

  • Tag Reading Mode

    These are the use cases when the principal mode of operation of the handset is to read tags.

  • touchpoint

    The place on an NFC Smart Poster that an NFC device should touch, in order to obtain digital services, usually indicated by the N-Mark

  • Trusted Execution Environment

    Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) is an execution environment that runs alongside but isolated from an REE (run-time execution environment). A TEE has security capabilities and meets certain security-related requirements: It protects TEE assets from general software attacks, defines rigid safeguards as to data and functions that a program can access, and resists a set of defined threats. There are multiple technologies that can be used to implement a TEE, and the level of security achieved varies accordingly. Further information: Global Platform.

  • Trusted Service Manager

    A trusted service manager (TSM) is a role typical in a near field communication ecosystem, where hardware secure element is in use. The trusted service manager acts as a neutral broker that sets up business agreements and technical connections with mobile network operators, mobile device manufacturers or other entities controlling the secure element (SE) on mobile devices. The trusted service manager enables service providers (SPs) to distribute and manage contactless applications remotely by allowing controlled access to the secure element in NFC-enabled handsets.

  • Type-Length-Value

    Type-Length-Value (TLV) is a coding method for parameters where the Type field specifies the parameter type, the Length field specifies the length of the parameter value, and the Value field contains the actual parameter value octets.

  • Universal Integrated Circuit Card

    Universal Integrated Circuit Card (UICC) is the smart card used in mobile terminals in GSM and UMTS networks.

  • Unmodulated Carrier

    A condition of the Operating Field With no modulation present.

  • User Interface

    A user interface (UI) is the system by which users interact with a machine. The user interface includes hardware and software components. On a mobile device the software component of a UI is realized though a mobile application (app).

  • WiFi

    Wireless Fidelity – wireless networking technology based on IEEE 802.11 standards.

Please select from the menu above

  • 3DES

    Triple DES

  • 3G

    Third Generation

  • 3GPP

    3rd Generation Partnership Project

  • AC

    Alternating Current

  • AEE

    Application Execution Environment

  • AES

    Advanced Encryption Standard

  • AMS

    Application Management Software

  • ANSI

    American National Standards Institute

  • APDU

    Application Protocol Data Unit

  • API

    Application Programming Interface

  • APSD

    Application Provider Security Domain

  • ASK

    Amplitude Shift Keying

  • BPSK

    Binary Phase Shift Keying

  • BS

    Base Station

  • CA

    Certificate Authority

  • CASD

    Controlling Authority Security Domain

  • CC

    Common criteria

  • CDC

    Connected Device Configuration

  • CDD

    Compatibility Definition Document

  • CFMS

    Contactless Fare Media System

  • CIB

    Card Issuing Bank

  • CLDC

    Connected Limited Device Configuration

  • CLF

    Contactless Front-end

  • CSMA

    Carrier Sense Multiple Access

  • DC

    Direct Current

  • DES

    Data Encryption Standard

  • DoS

    Denial of Service

  • DSAP

    Destination Service Access Point

  • DSP

    Digital Signal Processor

  • EAN

    European Article Number

  • ECC

    Elliptic Curve Cryptography

  • ECMA

    European Computer Manufacturer Association

  • EDGE

    Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution

  • EMV

    Europay, Mastercard and Visa

  • EPC™

    Electronic Product Code

  • ETSI

    European Telecommunications Standards Institute

  • FIPS

    Federal Information Processing Standard

  • GP

    Global Platform

  • GPRS

    General Packet Radio System

  • GPS

    Global Positioning System

  • GSM

    Global System for Mobile Communications

  • GSMA

    GSM Association

  • GUI

    Graphical User Interface

  • HCI

    Host Controller Interface

  • HCP

    Host Controller Protocol

  • HDLC

    High-Level Data Link Control

  • HMAC

    Hash-based Message Authentication Code

  • HSPA

    High Speed Packet Access

  • HTTP

    Hyper Text Transport Protocol

  • I/O

    Input/Output

  • IC

    Integrated Circuit

  • ICAO

    International Civil Aviation Organization

  • ICT

    Information and Communications Technologies

  • IDPS

    Intrusion Detection and Prevention System

  • IEC

    International Electrotechnical Commission

  • IFF

    Identify Friend or Foe

  • IrDA

    Infrared Data Association

  • ISD

    Issuer Security Domain

  • ISO

    International Organization of Standardization

  • ITU

    International Telecommunication Union

  • J2EE

    Java™ 2 Enterprise Edition

  • J2ME

    Java™ 2 Micro Edition

  • J2SE

    Java™ 2 Standard Edition

  • JAD

    Java Application Descriptor

  • JAR

    Java Archive

  • JCP

    Java Community Process

  • JCRMI

    JavaCard Remote Method Invocation

  • JCVM

    JavaCard Virtual Machine

  • JIS

    Japanese Industrial Standard

  • JLS

    Java Language Specification

  • JSP

    Java Community Process

  • JSR

    Java Specification Requests

  • JVM

    Java Virtual Machine

  • KDF

    Key Derivation Function

  • KMA

    Key Management Authority

  • KVM

    Kilobyte Virtual Machine

  • LLC

    Logical Link Control

  • LLCP

    Logical Link Control Protocol

  • MAC

    Message Authentication Code

  • MIDP

    Mobile Information Device Profile

  • MIM

    Man in the Middle

  • MIU

    Maximum Information Unit

  • MMS

    Multimedia Messaging Service

  • MNO

    Mobile Network Operator

  • MNP

    Mobile Network Provisioning

  • MULTOS

    Multi-application Operating System

  • MVNO

    Mobile Virtual Network Operator

  • NDEF

    NFC Data Exchange Format

  • NFC

    Near Field Communication

  • NFCIP

    Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol

  • NFCIP-1

    Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol-1

  • NFCIP-2

    Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol-2

  • OMA

    Open Mobile Alliance

  • OS

    Operating System

  • OTA

    Over-the-Air

  • P2P

    Peer-to-Peer

  • PC

    Personal Computer

  • PCD

    Proximity Coupling Device

  • PDA

    Personal Digital Assistant

  • PDU

    Protocol Data Unit

  • PICC

    Proximity Integrated Circuit Card

  • PIN

    Personal Identification Number

  • PKI

    Public Key Infrastructure

  • POS

    Point of Sale

  • PSK

    Phase Shift Keying

  • QoS

    Quality of Service

  • RF

    Radio Frequency

  • RFID

    Radio Frequency Identification

  • RoI

    Return of Investment

  • RST

    Reset the microprocessor

  • RTD

    Record Type Definition

  • SAM

    Secure Access Module

  • SAP

    Service Access Point

  • SAT

    SIM Application Toolkit

  • SCOS

    Smart Card Operating System

  • SCP

    Smart Card Platform

  • SCP

    Secure Channel Protocol

  • SDK

    Software Development Kit

  • SDP

    Service Discovery Protocol

  • SE

    Secure Element

  • SEP

    Secure Exchange Protocol

  • SIM

    Subscriber Identity Module

  • SMC

    Secure Memory Card

  • SMS

    Short Messaging Service

  • SP

    Service Provider

  • SSAP

    Source Service Access Point

  • SSD

    Supplementary Security Domain

  • SSL

    Secure Sockets Layer

  • STEP

    Secure Trusted Environment Provisioning

  • SWP

    Single Wire Protocol

  • TEE

    Trusted Execution Environment

  • TLS

    Transport Layer Security

  • TNF

    Type Name Format

  • TSM

    Trusted Service Manager

  • TTP

    Trusted Third Party

  • TTQ

    Terminal Transaction Qualifiers

  • UI

    User Interace

  • UICC

    Universal Integrated Circuit Card

  • UMTS

    Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

  • UPC

    Universal Product Code

  • URI

    Uniform Resource Identifier

  • USIM

    Universal Subscriber Identity Module

  • VM

    Virtual Machine

  • VPN

    Virtual Private Network

  • WEP

    Wired Equivalent Privacy

  • WI

    Wired Interface

  • Wi-Fi

    Wireless Fidelity

  • WiMAX

    Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access

  • WKS

    Well-known Service

  • WLAN

    Wireless Local Area Network

  • WPA

    Wi-Fi Protected Access

  • WPAN

    Wireless Personal Area Network

  • WWAN

    Wireless Wide Area Networks

Please select from the menu above

  • a

    Alphabetic

  • AAC

    Application Authentication Cryptogram

  • AC

    Application Cryptogram

  • ADR

    Application Decisional Results

  • AEF

    Application Elementary File

  • AFL

    Application File Locator

  • AID

    Application Identifier

  • AIP

    Application Interchange Profile

  • an

    Alphanumeric

  • ans

    Alphanumeric Special

  • App.

    Application

  • ARC

    Authorization Response Code

  • ARPC

    Authorization Response Cryptogram

  • ARQC

    Authorization Request Cryptogram

  • ATC

    Application Transaction Counter

  • ATM

    Automated Teller Machine

  • AUC

    Application Usage Control

  • auth.

    Authentication

  • b

    Binary

  • BER

    Basic Encoding Rules (defined in ISO/IEC 8825-1)

  • C

    Conditional

  • CA

    Certification Authority

  • CCD

    Common Core Definitions

  • CCI

    Common Core Identifier

  • CDA

    Combined DDA/Application Cryptogram Generation

  • OBEX

    Object Exchange