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NFC Protocol Technical Specifications
Defines an OSI layer-2 protocol to support peer-to-peer communication between two NFC-enabled devices, which is essential for any NFC applications that involve bi-directional communications. The specification defines two service types, connectionless and connection-oriented, organized into three link service classes: connectionless service only; connection-oriented service only; and both connectionless and connection-oriented service. The connectionless service offers minimal setup with no reliability or flow-control guarantees (deferring these issues to applications and to the reliability guarantees offered by ISO/IEC 18092 and ISO/IEC 14443 MAC layers). The connection-oriented service adds in-order, reliable delivery, flow-control, and session-based service layer multiplexing.
LLCP is a compact protocol, based on the industry standard IEEE 802.2, designed to support either small applications with limited data transport requirements, such as minor file transfers, or network protocols, such as OBEX and TCP/IP, which in turn provide a more robust service environment for applications. The NFC LLCP thus delivers a solid foundation for peer-to-peer applications, enhancing the basic functionality offered by ISO/IEC 18092, but without affecting the interoperability of legacy NFC applications or chipsets.
This specification addresses the digital protocol for NFC-enabled device communication, providing an implementation specification on top of the ISO/IEC 18092 and ISO/IEC 14443 standards. It harmonizes the integrated technologies, specifies implementation options and limits the interpretation of the standards; in essence, showing developers how to use NFC, ISO/IEC 14443 and JIS X6319-4 standards together to ensure global interoperability between different NFC devices, and between NFC devices and existing contactless infrastructure.
The specification defines the common feature set that can be used consistently and without further modification for major NFC applications in areas such as financial services and public transport. The specification covers the digital interface and the half-duplex transmission protocol of the NFC-enabled device in its four roles as Initiator, Target, Reader/Writer and Card Emulator. It includes bit level coding, bit rates, frame formats, protocols, and command sets, which are used by NFC-enabled devices to exchange data and bind to the LLCP protocol.
Version 2.0 of the Digital Protocol technical specification also adds ACM for P2P communication and NFC-V technology. Additionally, updates have been included based on ongoing alignment efforts with other organizations and standards, such as EMVCo, ISO/IEC 14443 and ISO/IEC 18092.
Version 2.1 of the Digital Protocol technical specification adds support for larger RF frames for the contactless ISO-DEP protocol compliant with ISO/IEC 14443 was added to optimize the overall transaction time for ISO-DEP.
Version 2.2 of the Digital Protocol technical specification adds error recover for Type 2 and Type 5 Tags communication. This update improves the user experience by ensuring reliable NFC communication in difficult environments where NFC communications might be disturbed.
The specification explains how the NFC Digital Protocol Specification can be used to set up the communication protocol with another NFC device or NFC Forum tag. It describes the building blocks, called Activities, for setting up the communication protocol. These Activities can be used as defined in this specification or can be modified to define other ways of setting up the communication protocol, covering the same or different use cases. Activities are combined in Profiles. From Version 2.1 onwards these profiles are described in a separate specification, the Profiles Technical Specification.
The Simple NDEF Exchange Protocol (SNEP) allows an application on an NFC-enabled device to exchange NFC Data Exchange Format (NDEF) messages with another NFC Forum device when operating in NFC Forum peer-to-peer mode. The protocol makes use of the Logical Link Control Protocol (LLCP) connection-oriented transport mode to provide a reliable data exchange.
This specification addresses the analog characteristics of the RF interface of the NFC-enabled device. The purpose of the specification is to characterize and specify the externally observable signals for an NFC-Enabled Device without specifying the design of the antenna of an NFC-Enabled Device. This includes power requirements (determining operating volume), transmission requirements, receiver requirements, and signal forms (time/frequency/modulation characteristics).
This specification is intended for use by manufacturers wanting to implement an NFC-enabled device. Its scope covers the analog interface of the NFC-enabled device in its five roles (Peer Mode Initiator, Peer Mode Target, Reader/Writer Mode, Wireless charging, and Card Emulation Mode) for all three technologies (NFC-A, NFC-B, and NFC-F) and for all the different bit rates (106kbps, 212kbps, and 424kbps).
The Analog 2.0 Specification introduced Active Communication Mode for P2P data exchange and NFC-V technology in poll mode. Version 2.0 ensures full interoperability with devices conformant to ISO/IEC 14443 or ISO/IEC 18092 by harmonizing the analog parameter for the contactless communication. This interoperability is important to enable the reliable usage of NFC devices with existing infrastructure using ISO compatible RF readers and/or cards (e.g. for contactless public transport applications). The 2.1 Version introduces some alignments to EMVCo and the NFC-V Listen mode requirements.
The NCI specification defines a standard interface within an NFC device between an NFC controller and the device’s main application processor. The NCI makes it easier for device manufacturers to integrate chipsets from different chip manufacturers, and it defines a common level of functionality and interoperability among the components within an NFC-enabled device. With the availability of the NCI, manufacturers have access to a standard interface they can use for whatever kind of NFC-enabled device they build – including mobile phones, PCs, tablets, printers, consumer electronics, and appliances. This will enable manufacturers to bring new NFC-enabled devices to market faster. The NCI provides users a logical interface that can be used with different physical transports, such as UART, SPI, and I2C.
NCI Version 2.0 introduces the concept of RF Interface Extensions to optimize for developers the data exchange for P2P and memory tag communications. The Listen Mode Routing mechanism has been extended to provide more flexibility for NFC devices with multiple secure elements. The new version also includes the option for NFC controllers to emulate NFC Forum tags autonomously, as well as a high-level RF interface to communicate with NFC Forum tags. NCI 2.0 supports Active Communication Mode (ACM) for P2P communication and Type V technology, allowing NFC devices to communicate with a broader range of devices and tags.
Version 2.1 of the NCI technical specification defines a standard interface within an NFC device between an NFC Controller and the device’s main application processor. This recent update to version 2.1 includes optimizations to improve performance.
The Profiles section of Activity 2.0 is now described in version 1.0 of the Profiles Technical Specification. It adds a new Profile to discover all services eventually offered with different technologies. The specification explains how the Activities defined in Activity Technical Specification can be combined the serve a specific use case. Each Profile has specific Configuration Parameters and covers a particular use case. This document defines Profiles polling for an NFC device and establishment of Peer to Peer communication, polling for an NFC device and reading NFC Data Exchange Format (NDEF) data from an NFC Forum tag, and polling for a NFC tag or NFC device in combination.
NFC Data Exchange Specifications
Specifies a common data format for NFC Forum-compliant devices and NFC Forum-compliant tags.
NFC Forum Tag Type Technical Specifications
Defines how an NFC-enabled device in Reader/Writer Mode detects, reads and writes a NDEF Message on a NFC Forum Type 2 Tag. The communication with this Forum Tag type is based on NFC-A Technology.
Version 1.1 of the Type 2 Tag Specification includes updates to support time-optimized implementations to improve the performance for reading NFC Forum tags in support of the new TNEP protocol.
Defines how an NFC-enabled device in Reader/Writer Mode detects, reads and writes a NDEF Message on a NFC Forum Type 3 Tag. The communication with this Forum Tag type is based on NFC-F Technology, which is compatible to the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) X 6319-4.
Version 1.1 of the Type 3 Tag Specification includes updates to support time-optimized implementations to improve the performance for reading NFC Forum tags in support of the new TNEP protocol.
Defines how an NFC-enabled device in Reader/Writer Mode detects, reads and writes a NDEF Message on a NFC Forum Type 4 Tag. The communication with this Forum Tag type is based on the ISO Data Exchange Protocol (ISO-DEP) which is fully compatible with the ISO/IEC 14443 standard series. This protocol is either based on NFC-A or NFC-B Technology.
Version 1.1 of the Type 4 Tag Specification includes updates to support time-optimized implementations to improve the performance for reading NFC Forum tags in support of the new TNEP protocol.
Defines how an NFC-enabled device in Reader/Writer Mode detects, reads and writes a NDEF Message on a NFC Forum Type 5 Tag. The communication with this NFC Forum Tag type is based on NFC-V Technology.
Version 1.1 of the Type 5 Tag Specification includes updates to support time-optimized implementations to improve the performance for reading NFC Forum tags in support of the new TNEP protocol.
The TNEP 1.0 Technical Specification supports the bi-directional exchange of NDEF messages based on the communication protocol used by the NFC Forum Tag devices of Type 2, 3, 4 and 5. The new TNEP protocol offers a simple protocol for NFC IoT devices to exchange data between an NFC enabled phone and the IoT Device. For example, this protocol can be used to configure and read smart meter devices, to control the thermostatic radiator valve or to configure the lightning device in your smart home.
NFC Record Type Definition Technical Specifications
Technical specifications for Record Type Definitions (RTDs) and four specific RTDs: Text, URI, Smart Poster, and Generic Control.
Specifies the format and rules for building standard record types used by NFC Forum application definitions and third parties that are based on the NDEF data format. The RTD specification provides a way to efficiently define record formats for new applications and gives users the opportunity to create their own applications based on NFC Forum specifications.
Provides an efficient way to store text strings in multiple languages by using the RTD mechanism and NDEF format. An example of using this specification is included in the Smart Poster RTD.
Signature RTD Certificate Policy
Defines the procedural and operational requirements that the NFC Forum expects Certificate Authorities (CAs) to adhere to, when issuing and managing certificates to create signatures for NDEF messages. Provides users with the possibility of verifying the authenticity and integrity of data within the NDEF message, and specifies the format used when signing single or multiple NDEF records.
Defines the Device Information record type, which conveys fundamental model and identity identification information. The purpose of the Device Information record is to convey host information in a record format that can be used across different carrier types or service types.
Reference Application Technical Specifications
Defines the structure and sequence of interactions that enable two NFC devices to establish a connection using other wireless communication technologies, such as Bluetooth or WLAN. The specification enables developers to choose the carrier for the information to be exchanged. If matching wireless capabilities are revealed during the negotiation process between two NFC-enabled devices, the connection can switch to the selected carrier. With this specification, other communication standards bodies can define information required for the connection setup to be carried in NFC Data Exchange Format (NDEF) messages. The specification also covers static handover, in which the connection handover information is stored on a simple NFC Forum Tag that can be read by NFC-enabled devices. Static mode is used in applications in which the negotiation mechanism or on-demand carrier activation is not required.
The updated version of the NFC Forum Connection Handover Technical Specification (CH 1.5) is the first NFC Forum specification to take advantage of TNEP. By defining the messaging structure for how negotiated handover operates with a reader/writer and an NFC tag device, CH 1.5 creates the possibility for the development of new solutions pairing NFC with Bluetooth or Wi-Fi when the data to be transferred is large or streamed for a long time. Examples include Bluetooth audio streaming or transfer of a photo between a digital camera or a smartphone over Wi-Fi. Previously, negotiated handover was limited to a P2P connection. CH 1.5 can now use TNEP to allow an additional negotiated handover for a connection between a reader/writer and NFC tag device providing users more control over how they gather and share their information between devices, thereby increasing the security of paired connections. Negotiated Handover using the Reader/Writer mode will be for example used by the new ISO/IEC 18013-5 standard defining the sharing mechanism for mobile driving licensees.
Connection Handover (CH) Technical Specification 1.5
The earlier version of this specification described communication mechanisms for personal health devices based on the NFC Forum Type 2, 3 and 4 Tag protocols. Version 1.2 of the PHDC Technical Specification adds the communications mechanism for NFC Forum Type 5 Tag protocol broadening the implementation choices for service providers of future NFC-enabled Personal Health Devices.
NFC Wireless Charging Specifications
Wireless Charging allows for wireless charging of small battery-powered devices like those found in many IoT devices, This approach can help avoid the need for a separate wireless charging unit for small devices if the device includes an NFC communication interface. For example, a Bluetooth headset which includes NFC technology for pairing could also use the NFC interface for wireless charging. In this case, the NFC antenna is used to exchange the pairing information and to transfer power.
This NFC specification uses the 13.56 MHz base frequency and leverages the NFC communication link to control the power transfer. NFC technology is unique in that it allows the transfer of power to an NFC tag to enable communication by providing a constant carrier signal. The WLC specification extends this communication functionality of NFC technology to enable wireless charging. The WLC specification ensures a safe charging process between two NFC-enabled devices in either static or negotiated modes. Static mode uses standard radio frequency (RF) field strength and provides a consistent power level. Negotiated mode uses a higher RF field supporting four power transfer classes of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 milliwatts.